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Fluency Accuracy and Automaticity: Assessment and Norms

Accuracy

Calculation: Total number of words read correctly divided by total words read (correct or corrected plus uncorrected errors).

Example: 137 words read correctly/ 145 total words read (137 correct + 8 uncorrected errors) = 94.5% correct.

Interpretation: *wcpm=words correct per minute

  • 99% Correct: Independent level reading
  • 95% Correct: Instructional level reading
  • 90% Correct: Frustration level reading

Automaticity/Fluency Rate Norms

Grade

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Fall


53
79
99
105
115
147
156

Winter


78
93
112
118
132
158
167

Spring

60 wcpm
94
114
118
128
145
167
171

Procedure

Have students read orally for one minute from curriculum material at their grade level. Ask students to read in their normal manner, not overly fast or slow. Administer reading probes at least three times per year (for example, beginning of school year, and then quarterly).

Scoring: Count number of words read correctly in the one-minute period. Include errors corrected in the one-minute period.

Analysis and Interpretation: Students reading significantly below stated norms (20% or more below norms) are at risk in reading decoding and/or fluency and should be considered for further assessment and diagnosis, as well as intensive intervention/remediation program.

Sources

Rasinski, T. (2006). Creating Fluent Readers From Phonics to Fluency: Strategies for Achieving Reading Proficiency! Peterborough, NH: SDE

Adapted from: Hasbrouck, J.E. & Tindal, G. (1992). Curriculum-based oral reading fluency norms for students in Grades 2 through 5. Teaching Exceptional Children. (Spring), 41–44. and Howe, K.B. & Shinn, M.M. (2001). Standard reading assessment passages (RAPS) for use in general outcome measurements: A manual describing development and technical features. Eden Prairie, MN: Edformations.


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