Fluency Accuracy and Automaticity: Assessment and Norms
Calculation: Total number of words read correctly divided by total words read (correct or corrected plus uncorrected errors).
Example: 137 words read correctly/ 145 total words read (137 correct + 8 uncorrected errors) = 94.5% correct.
Interpretation: *wcpm=words correct per minute
Automaticity/Fluency Rate Norms
Have students read orally for one minute from curriculum material at their grade level. Ask students to read in their normal manner, not overly fast or slow. Administer reading probes at least three times per year (for example, beginning of school year, and then quarterly).
Scoring: Count number of words read correctly in the one-minute period. Include errors corrected in the one-minute period.
Analysis and Interpretation: Students reading significantly below stated norms (20% or more below norms) are at risk in reading decoding and/or fluency and should be considered for further assessment and diagnosis, as well as intensive intervention/remediation program.
Rasinski, T. (2006). Creating Fluent Readers From Phonics to Fluency: Strategies for Achieving Reading Proficiency! Peterborough, NH: SDE
Adapted from: Hasbrouck, J.E. & Tindal, G. (1992). Curriculum-based oral reading fluency norms for students in Grades 2 through 5. Teaching Exceptional Children. (Spring), 41–44. and Howe, K.B. & Shinn, M.M. (2001). Standard reading assessment passages (RAPS) for use in general outcome measurements: A manual describing development and technical features. Eden Prairie, MN: Edformations.